Sabtu, 24 November 2012

Analytical Exposition

 Analytical Exposition

 Analytical Exposition – An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people

Purpose:
  • To persuade the reader or listener that there is something that, certainly, needs to get attention
  • To analyze a topic and to persuade the reader that this opinion is correct and supported by arguments
          Examples: argumentative essay, exploratory essay
Generic Structure:
  1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position; Outlines of the arguments are presented.
  2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument
  3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position
Language Features:
  • Focus on generic human and non-human participants, e.g.: car, pollution, leaded petrol car
  • Use abstract noun, e.g.: policy, government
  • Use of relational processes, e.g.: It is important
  • Modal verbs, e.g.: we must preserve
  • Modal adverbs, e.g.: certainly we.
  • Connective or Use of internal conjunction to state argument, e.g.: first, secondly, then, finally)
  • Evaluative language, e.g.: important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.
  • Giving reasons through causal conjunction
  • (e.g. so, thus, therefore, hence)
  • Use of present tense
  • Passive sentence
The example of Analytical Exposition:
SHOULD CHILDREN WEAR HATS AT SCHOOL?
(Statement of position):
I believe that you should always wear a hat at school when you are playing outside , to stop you from getting sunburn.
(Argument 1):
Firstly, if you don’t wear a hat, you will get sunburn ant the sunburn is painful.
(Argument 2):
Secondly, sunburn could lead to skin cancer. Sunburn can lead to health problems later in life. Many older people suffer from skin cancer which can kill them.
(Reinforcement of position statement):
In my opinion all school students should wear hats.

The Importance of English
Thesis { I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say that?
Argument 1 { Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all around the world, either as a first or second language.
Argument 2 { Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world.
Argument 3 { Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who do not.
Conclusion { From the fact above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era.

The Importance of Education

 I personally think that education is very important for us as Indonesian teenager who will take over values, good morals, culture and knowledge. We also bring the future of Indonesia nation in the middle of world global civilization.
The condition of education in Indonesia is terrible. Why do I say that? In fact, there are many regions that have not been reached by good education. If the condition is going like this, I am sure it is difficult for Indonesia to be a prosperous country. How can it be? As we all know, a prosperous country must have a good basic education, because by having good education, people will get job easily, good life. Due to this reason, it makes the country prosperous.
To improve education system in Indonesia, the government has tried to provide education evenly to all part of Indonesian and to apply suitable education system that can make people clever and civilized. So, Indonesian can life better in this modern and sophisticated era. By the existence of education in our country, we will be able to reach the degree of knowledge or science. Besides, the Indonesian human resources will be equal with people in all around the world.
In short, it is obvious that as young Indonesian generation, education is very important.
——————————————-

 

Noun Clauses




Noun clauses is a dependent clause that functions as a noun (that is, as a subject,object, or complement) within a sentence. Also known as a nominal clause.
Two common types of noun clause in English are that-clauses andwh-clauses:
    • that-clause: I believe that everything happens for a reason.
  • wh-clause: How do I know what I think, until I seewhat I say?
See also:

Examples and Observations:

    • “When Mrs. Frederick C. Little’s second son arrived, everybody noticed that he was not much bigger than a mouse.” (E.B. White, Stuart Little, 1945)
    • “A university is what a college becomes when the faculty loses interest in students.” (John Ciardi, Saturday Review, 1966)
    • “I know that there are things that never have been funny, and never will be. And I know that ridicule may be a shield, but it is not a weapon.” (Dorothy Parker)
    • “I believe that there is a subtle magnetism in Nature, which, if we unconsciously yield to it, will direct us aright.” (Henry David Thoreau)
    • “The thought of stars contributed to the power of his feeling. What moved him was a sense of those worlds around us, our knowledge however imperfect of their nature, our sense of their possessing some grain of our past and of our lives to come.” (John Cheever, Oh What a Paradise It Seems. Random House, 1982)
    • Whoever was the person behind Stonehenge was one dickens of a motivator, I’ll tell you that.” (Bill Bryson, Notes From a Small Island. Doubleday, 1995)
    • How we remember, what we remember, and why we remember form the most personal map of our individuality.” (Christina Baldwin)
    • “This is the story of what a Woman’s patience can endure, and of what a Man’s resolution can achieve.” (Wilkie Collins, The Woman in White, 1859)
    • That dogs, low-comedy confederates of small children and ragged bachelors, should have turned into an emblem of having made it to the middle class–like the hibachi, like golf clubs and a second car–seems at the very least incongruous.” (Edward Hoagland, “Dogs, and the Tug of Life”)
    • Nominal Clauses as Direct Objects “All sentences, then, are clausesbut not all clauses are sentences. In the following sentences, for example, the direct object slot contains a clause rather than a noun phrase. These are examples of nominal clauses (sometimes called ‘noun clauses’):
      • I know that the students studied their assignment.
      • I wonder what is making Tracy so unhappy.
      These nominal clauses are examples of dependent clauses–in contrast to independent clauses, those clauses that function as complete sentences.”
      (Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar, 5th ed., Allyn and Bacon, 1998)
    • Noun-Clause Starters “We use various words to start noun clauses. . . .”These words include the word that, which in its role as a noun clause starter is not arelative pronoun, for it serves no grammatical role in the clause; it just starts the clause. For example: The committee stated that it would follow the agent’s policy. Here the noun clause serves the noun role of direct object of the transitive verb stated. But a careful look at the clause reveals that the word that does not serve any role within the clause, other than simply to get it going.”Other noun clause starters do serve grammatical roles within the clause. For example: We know who caused all the trouble. Here the noun clause starter is the relative pronoun who. Notice that inside the noun clause who serves as the grammatical subject of the verbcaused.
      “Additional words serve as noun clause starters. A relative adverb can get one going: Howhe won the election mystified the pundits. So can a relative pronoun acting as an adjective: We know which career she will pursue. In these two sentences, how is an adverb modifying the verb won, and which is a relative-pronoun-adjective modifying the noun career.”
      (C. Edward Good, A Grammar Book for You and I–Oops, Me!. Capital Books, 2002)
  • “I have run, I have crawled,
    I have scaled these city walls,
    These city walls
    Only to be with you,
    Only to be with you.
    But I still haven’t found what I’m looking for.”
    (written and performed by U2, “I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For.” The Joshua Tree, 1987)
Also Known As: nominal clause

Transitions : Moreover , Futhermore , In addition , Therefore , Consequently

Moreover,futhermore,and in addition mean also. Therefore and consequently mean as aresult.
 
Examples:
1. Rieke is clever and kind. Moreover, she is friendly. Many people like her.
2. The test was difficult. In addition, the time was also limited. Consequently,many students god bad marks.
3. It is raining hard. Futhermore, Ryan’s house is a long way from school. Therefore, he will wait until the rain stops.
-Moreover, use for augmentation
-Consequently, use for result,conclusion,summary
-In addition, use for augmentation
-Futhermore, use for augmentation
-Therefore, use for conclusion, summary
Moreover
You can use “moreover” to replace “and in addition.” It normally begins the second independent clause in a sentence, following a semicolon.Moreover is a transition, so you use it to make something follow another.
Here’s an example with correct punctuation:
-The hairdresser had dyed his hair the wrong color; moreover, the hair turned green when she tried to correct the error.
Futhermore
You use furthermore to add more information to what was already said or written.Futhermore is transitions  part of the Academic Word List and almost always used at the beginning of a sentence.
Example:
We believe that the project is possible. Furthermore, we believe that we can do it within a few months.
In addition
In addition, additionally or also, joins two sentences (independent clauses.)  The word introduces additional information.  These words are often called transition words or conjunctive adverbs.  (Also tends to be less formal than in addition or additionally).
Examples:
-Anne and Alex act and sing.  In addition, they dance.
-She must dance gracefully.  In addition, she must dance precisely.
Therefore
Therefore - (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result; it’s a conjunctive adverb (the term is not important!).
Examples:
-those people have their umbrellas up: therefore, it must be raining
-they heard the warning on the radio and therefore took another route
Consequently
“Consequently” is very similar to “so” and “therefore.” Like “therefore” it’s a conjunctive adverb (the term is not important!). It usually appears in the middle of sentence, but it may also be used at the beginning of sentence. If you know what the word “consequence” means, you shouldn’t have any trouble with this.
Examples:
-Hector decided not to use a map; consequently, he got lost and never found his way out of the forest. There he died.
-Gas prices rose too high for Matt to afford; consequently, he sold his car and made his daily commute by bike.
-Astronomy has been an interest of human beings for centuries; consequently, our curiousity has led to a better undersanding of our place in the solar system and human space exploration.
-Poachers have hunted and killed too many elephants for their tusks; consequently, they have become an endangered species in some parts of the world.
- An adequate water supply is important to a farmer’s success; consequently, irrigation is used in places where water is in short supply.
-Hector was a very good student who studied constantly; consequently, he found a very good job after he graduated from college.
-The United States suffered terribly under incompetent Republican leadership during the 2000s; consequently, the Democrats easily won in the November 2008 elections

Public Service Announcements and Posters




A Public service announcement is an advertisement that a television or radio station airs for a cause or a charity. They can tout the importance of medical check-ups for children or ask you to donate to the Salvation Army’s bellringers.It is a free “commercial” for a non-profir organization.
Public service announcements are not paid advertising. A broadcaster donates the ad time as part of its commitment to serve the public interest.
The goal of a PSA is simple: to get someone to take a spesific action. It’s not to talk about the sponsoring organization. It’s motivate the targeted audience to act, for example, to drop off canned goods for food drive, to stop smoking, and to avoid drug abuse.
Examples PSA :

10 Second PSA: WE COME FROM ALL WALKS OF LIFE, BUT WE TRAVEL DOWN THE SAME ROAD. LOOK FOR MOTORCYCLES & SHARE THE ROAD. THIS MESSAGE BROUGHT TO YOU BY ABATE of ARKANSAS.
15 Second PSA: DID YOU KNOW THAT 75% OF MULTIPLE VEHICLE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTORCYCLES WERE THE FAULT OF THE OTHER PERSON? DON’T BE PART OF THAT DEADLY STATISTIC, LOOK FOR MOTORCYCLES & SHARE THE ROAD. THIS MESSAGE BROUGHT TO YOU BY ABATE of ARKANSAS.
20 Second PSA: APPROXIMATELY 75% OF THE MULTI-VEHICLE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTORCYCLES WERE THE FAULT OF THE OTHER PERSON. MOST OF THOSE DRIVERS SAID THEY DID NOT SEE THE MOTORCYCLE. DON’T BE PART OF THAT DEADLY STATISTIC. LOOK FOR MOTORCYCLES & SHARE THE ROAD. THIS MESSAGE BROUGHT TO YOU BY ABATE of ARKANSAS.
30 Second PSA: DO YOU KNOW SOMEONE WHO RIDES A MOTORCYCLE? CHANCES ARE GOOD THAT YOU SEE MOTORCYCLE RIDERS WHEN YOU ARE BEHIND THE WHEEL. FOR THE REST OF YOU, YOUR CHANCES OF BEING THE PERSON WHO HITS A MOTORCYCLE RIDER JUST WENT UP 300%. THAT’S RIGHT, YOU ARE 3 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO HIT SOMEONE RIDING A MOTORCYCLE JUST BECAUSE YOU DON’T HAVE A RELATIONSHIP WITH SOMEONE WHO RIDES THEM. DON’T BE PART OF THAT DEADLY STATISTIC. LOOK FOR MOTORCYCLES & SHARE THE ROAD. THIS MESSAGE BROUGHT TO YOU BY ABATE of ARKANSAS.

example :
 Public Service Announcement


flu and pneumonia campaign


POSTER
A poster is an informative and decorative way to attract the attention to the information it contains. It is usually displayed in a public place. It is often decorated with designs or illustrations.
Here are some ways to use posters in a literacy program:
-to advertise events or products
-to display information or instructions
-to teach about some kinds of information
Examples poster:
 

Expressing Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

- Expressing satisfaction is an expression  for a feeling of happiness or pleasure   because you have achieved something or   got what you wanted.
Expressing Satisfaction :
 

- Dissatisfaction expression is a feeling    we express when we do not get as   enough as we hope and feel disappointed   with some conditions, we must be dissatisfied.
Example of informal expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Expressing Dissatisfaction :
 
 
Purpose: to show the feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction

Expressing Satisfaction Expressing Dissatisfaction
  • I’m satisfied with …
  • I’m satisfied at …
  • I’m glad with what you’ve done.
  • It’s really satisfying.
  • Everything was satisfying.
  • I’m not satisfied with …
  • It isn’t very nice.
  • It’s really not good enough.
  • I’m dissatisfied by …
  • It’s dissatisfying.
  • Oh, no.

Dialogues:
A: did you come to the party?
B: yes, I was there. Did you not come?
A: I came to Ricos party. I’ m satisfied with the DJ. She did great job. How about that party?
B: it’s really not good enough. There was an accident but no one hurt.
A: oh, really? I am lucky for not coming then.

Jumat, 23 November 2012

Indefinite Pronouns


 
An indefinite pronoun refers to something that is not definite or specific or exact. The indefinite pronouns are all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, someone, These indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives in some cases.

 Some, any + -body / -one, + -thing, + -where

The compounds of some and any behave in the same way as some and any, that is to say, some-, in affirmative sentences and, any-, in negatives and questions, although we use some- in the interrogative to offer something, to ask for something or when we expect a positive response.

The examples in the sentences below show the indefinite pronouns in intalics.

  • All are welcome to attend the concert.

  • Mary gave the book to another.

  • I don’t have any.

  • Does anybody have a clue?

  • Anyone can play that game.

  • Peter didn’t see anything suspicious.

  • Each brought a dish to pass.

  • Everybody left town for the weekend.

  • Everyone enjoyed the movie.

  • Everything is taken care of.

  • Few visited that park.

  • Many called for information.

  • Jennifer told nobody her secret.

  • None came forward to claim the prize.

  • One could see the mountains from miles away.

  • Several signed the card.

  • The room is too gloomy for some.

  • Somebody called the store.

  • Joe gave the form to someone

    •   I saw somebody there. 
    • I did not see anybody there.




So , Too , Either , Neither


 
 

1. “So and “too”. The words ‘so; and ‘too’ are used combine two positive statements with identical predicates to form a compound sentence. An auxiliary must be included in the second part of the sentence.
However, there is a difference while using ‘so and ‘too’.
-so + auxiliary verb + subject
-subject + auxiliary verb + too
Subject 1 + to be/verb+ object/complement+and+so+aux+subject 2
Example:
Snow White was beautiful
The Queen was beautiful
(Snow White was beautiful and so was The Queen)
Examples:
  I likes playing guitar. Fandy also likes playing guitar.
- I likes playing guitar and so does Fandy.
- I likes playing guitar and Fandy does too.
2. TOO
Subject 1 + to be/verb+ object/complement+and+subject 2+aux+too
Example:
Snow White was beautiful
The Queen was beautiful
(Snow White was beautiful and The Queen was too)
2. ‘Either and ‘Neither‘. The word ‘either and ‘neither’ are used to combine two negative statements with identical predicates to form a compound sentence. The predicate is not repeated completely in the second part of the compound sentence. An auxiliary must be included in the second part of the sentence.
There is a difference while using ‘either’ and ‘neither’.
-subject + auxiliary verb + not + either
-neither + auxiliary verb + subject
Either
Subject 1 + verb+ object +and+neither+aux+subject 2
Example:
Hima can not sing a song
Shela can not sing a song
(Hima can not sing a song and neither can Shela)
Neither
Subject 1 + verb+ object+and+ subject 2+aux+not+either
Hima can not sing a song
Shela can not sing a song
(Hima can not sing a song and Shela can not either )
Examples:
-Jeremy is not doing his homework now. Aji is also not doing his homework.
-Jeremy is not doing his homework and Aji is not either.
-Jeremy is not doing his homework and neither is Aji.

 

Unit 39. too/either so am I/neither do I etc.







    

Kamis, 22 November 2012

Weather Reports & Tables/Graphs









A weather report is a prediction of weather, often for a specific locality, in a newspaper, on the radio or television. The weather is predicted through application of the principles of Physics and meteorology.
Example A Weather Report 
Good morning. This is Fandy Christian with local weather report. It will be foggy this morning in almost all parts of town, followed by slight showers. However, the showers will not last for a long time. By early afternoon it will be sunny until late afternoon, followed by heavy rain in the evening into the night. Thank you.
Tables/Graphs
Tables and graphs can be useful tools for helping people make decisions. However, they only provide part of a story. Inferences often have to be made from the data shown. As well as being able to identify clearly what the graph or table is telling us, it is important to identify what parts of the story are missing. This can help the reader decide what other information they need, or whether the argument should be rejected because the supporting evidence is suspect.
TABLES
Table presents facts and fiures in compact form. There are several things that we need to pay attention to. They are, the table title, row or column labels, information given in individual cells and information given within rows and columns.
Examples:

GRAPHS
A graphs is a visual, concise means of presenting information. There are three basic kinds graphs: b line graphs,circle or pie graphs and bar graphs.
1.  Line graphs: A line graph is a way of representing two pieces of information, which is usually related and vary with respect to each other. This is useful when comparisons are needed

2. Pie Charts: A pie chart is a type of a circle graph normally used in showcasing a wholesome quantity; we have to show that how this whole quantity is broken into parts. The whole quantity depicts entire sample space and the pieces of pie in the circle graph are called sectors.

3. Bar Charts: This is a type of chart, which contains labeled horizontal or vertical bars showing a piece of information and an axis. The numbers along the side of bar graph compose the axis. This is also called as a histogram; Bar Graph is useful when there is a numerical comparison.

Giving Advice & Warning



-   Giving  Advice is  to give (someone) a recommendation about what should be done.

Expressions Of  Asking  for  Advice
•What should…………………………….. ?
•What do you think should………… ?
•What do you advise?
•Could you give me some advice for ….?
•What you would advice?
•What would you do if……….?
•Do you think I should …..?
Expressions of Giving Advice
•You should/ought to……….
•I think you should/ought to………
•You ought to………………
•I advise you to
•If I were you, I would……..
•I would recommend that you ……
•You’d better tell …………..
•You must to……………….

 -Dialogue: Giving Advice
DIALOGUE
George – Hey, Ari, what’s the matter? You look worried. What’s the problem?
Ari – Yes, it’s my brother. I think he’s stealing. I found 1000 million in his room.
George – Wow!! That’s serious! What are you going to do?
Ari – I don’t know. What do you think I should do?
George – Well, if I were you, I’d speak to him.
Ari – I tried that, but he didn’t listen.
George – Then you have to try again. Come on – I‘ll come with you.
Ari – Ok. Thanks George. 
 
 Family doctor giving advice to a male patient Royalty Free Stock Vector Art IllustrationFamily doctor giving advice to a male patient
 
 
Dialogue Expressing of Giving Advice
•Lie    : Good morning,Foo
•Foo  : Good morning, Lie. (Looks confused)
•Lie    : How are you,Foo
•Foo : I’m confused now.
•Lie    : Why?
•Foo  : My girlfriend forbade me to follow the dance
competition. If you were me, what would you
tell her?
•Lie :    I would say that the competition is very
important  to you, and instead, the prize of the
competition  would you give to her
•Foo : That’s a good idea. I will do it. Thank you very
much, Lie. Now I want to go to canteen. See
you.
•Foo :   You’re welcome. See you too.
 
 
 


Warning is admonition notice, or pointing out on  existing or potential danger, specially to one who would otherwise would not be aware of it. We can use this way to warn someone or more about somethingthat will happened. Some of the ways are just like givingcommands to the others.

Expression of Warning
•Look out! There is a snake beside you.
•Don’t step on the grass!.
•No smoking!
•No hunting!
•Be Silent
•No camping without permission!
•Do not cut down the trees!
•Keep out of the reach of children!
  
Dialogue Expressing of Warning
•Merry                : “Mom, let me go out for a
while, please?”
•Mother             : “Where are you going to,
Mer?”
•Merry               :  “I’d like to visit Lala. She
got accident this morning.
She is in the hospital now.”
•Mother             : “Okay, but take care when
you drive! The road is very
slippery.”
•Merry                : “Thank you, Mom.”
hell.

Granting Request





Granting Request

 

Granting request is to agree someone who want do something.
Example Granting Requesting
-Sure. Here you are.
-Yes,you may.
-Certainly. It’s almost finished anyway.
-Of course.You can.
 
In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you find the following expressions:
Ayu     : Will you tell me about it?
Palupi  : Sure,
I will.
Ayu      : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.
Palupi  : OK.
Sure, I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.
Here are other expressions that you can use:
  •  Alright.
  • Certainly.
  • Right away.
  • Of course.
    • Granting Request
    Mery  : Hey what are you doing here?
    Brad   : I'm waiting for the bus mer, but it doesn't come yet
    Mery  : By the way, where do you want to go ?
    Brad   : I have to go to school now
    Mery  : I see. Do you have to come soon there?
    Brad   : Well, can you give me a ride?
    Mery  : Of course, man. Come on.
    Brad  : Thank you
    Mery  : Yeay never mind. I just can go anywhere now.
    Brad   : Ok then. Let's go, mer!

Report Text

 

Report Text

Definition of Report
Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis

- Purpose Of Social
It’s social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on.

- Social Function
Inform the readers about range of natural, and social phenomena in our environment.

Generic Structure of Report
1. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general
2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials

Language Feature of Report
• Introducing group or general aspect
• Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc
• Using simple present tense 
 
 Example Report Text :
report text
Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Bridges”, and “The City of Light”. The city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy.

Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot.

You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorised waterbuses (“vaporetti”) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city’s islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges.

You can see the amusing city’s landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Saint Mark’s Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside.

They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.

Adjectice Clauses











Adjective Clauses
Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, giving a description or more information. An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide a description. The clause starts with a pronoun such as who, whom, that, or which or an adverb such as when, where and why.

 
Rumus : Modified + Conjunction + Modifier

Examples:

1. Mr Tom is my father. He works at BCA
  • Mr Tom who works at BCA is my father
2. Jack is a thief. I saw him steal a wallet
  • Jack whom I saw steal a wallet is a thief
3. The table is so expensive. I bought it last week
  • The table which I bought last week is so expensive
4. The house is beatiful. It belongs to Amir
  • The house which belongs to Amir is beautiful
5. The lady bought a car . her husband died a year ago
  • The lady whose husband died a year ago bought a car

 Who: used for humans in subject position:
Hans, who is an architect, lives in Berlin.
Whom: used for humans in object position:
Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.
Which: used for things and animals in subject or object position:
Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere.

That: used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position (but see below): Marike is decorating a house that Hans designed.
Whose: used for humans, animalsi or objects to give information about their possessions.
The girl whose dress is red is my best friend.
Where: used for places
The hotel where we stayed last summer was very beautiful.
When: used for time
My baby was born in the year when I moved to Italy.